The Grades Are In: A Report Card on Canada’s Progress in Protecting its Land and Ocean
Introduction and Background
The Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society (CPAWS) assessed how well Canada fared in delivering on its promise to protect 17% of its land and 10% of its ocean by the end of 2020, including the degree to which federal, provincial, and territorial governments each contributed to this shared goal. Our Report Card assigns grades to each government based on its contributions and highlights key successes and shortcomings.
It is important to recognize that the 17% and 10% targets approved by the international community in 2010 were just milestones towards what is ultimately needed to conserve biodiversity. Evidence shows that protecting between 30-70% of the Earth’s land and ocean will likely be needed to reverse the decline of biodiversity and sustain a healthy planet. Canada is currently committed to protecting 25% of its land and ocean by 2025, on the way to 30% by 2030.
CPAWS is committed to helping Canada meet its targets by supporting the creation of effective protected area networks across the country. Using our first report card as a baseline, we plan to release subsequent Report Cards to track progress made towards the 2025 and 2030 targets.
Join the movement to protect at least 30% of Canada’s land and ocean by 2030.
How are Canada and its Provinces and Territories Doing?
The Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society (CPAWS) has conducted an assessment of how well Canada fared in delivering on a promise that dates back to 2010: to protect at least 17% of its land and 10% of its ocean by 2020. This report card presents our key findings. It assigns grades to the current federal, provincial, and territorial governments based on their contributions and highlights major achievements and shortcomings. Our goal in producing this report card is to learn from the successes and failures of the past decade to inform more effective conservation action moving forward. Using this report as a baseline, we plan to release subsequent report cards to track progress made by each jurisdiction towards the 2025 and 2030 targets of protecting 25% of land and ocean and 30% of land and ocean, respectively.[expand title=”Read More …”]
Habitat loss and fragmentation from human activities are the primary causes of the current rapid decline of biodiversity and the resulting Nature Emergency. Well-designed and managed protected areas are scientifically proven to be effective in conserving nature. Protected areas also play an important role in our well-being and the economy, making them a critical investment for ensuring a healthy and happy future for all Canadians. While significant, the 17% and 10% targets approved by the international community in 2010 were just milestones towards what is ultimately needed to conserve biodiversity: protecting at least half of the Earth’s land and ocean ecosystems.
Canada met the 10% ocean protection target by 2020 with 13.8% protected, albeit with concerns about the quality of conservation measures in some areas. However, the 17% terrestrial target was missed by a significant margin, with only 13.1% of land and freshwater protected. The report card assesses federal, provincial, and territorial governments on their contributions to the terrestrial target. For the ocean component we only assessed the federal government because most marine activities are under federal jurisdiction, and federally designated marine protected areas are the primary conservation tool for ocean ecosystems.
Our results are organized into four categories: Leaders (A- to B+), Mixed Review (B to C-), Laggards (D to F), and Notable Efforts (B-).
The Government of Quebec, the federal government, and the Government of the Northwest Territories form the Leaders group. Quebec publicly committed to the 17% target and delivered 16.7% by creating new protected areas.* In addition, Quebec also amended its protected areas legislation to recognize Indigenous-led protected areas and to commit to international standards for protection. The province received an A- because it failed to establish protected areas proposed for southern Quebec due to industrial interests.
The federal government also earned an A- for terrestrial conservation by committing to deliver on the 17% target, convening provinces and territories to work together through the Pathway to Canada Target 1 process, making two historic conservation investments, supporting Indigenous-led conservation, and committing to ambitious protection targets for the next decade. Weaknesses in how the 2018 federal funding was allocated, the lack of long-term investment, and problems with protected area management lowered the grade.
The Government of the Northwest Territories earned a B+ for passing protected areas legislation that recognizes and supports Indigenous protected areas and international standards, and for working with federal and Indigenous governments to establish protected areas. While it did not quite meet the 17% target, the territorial government made significant headway and set the stage for further progress.
For its efforts to protect Canada’s coastal and ocean ecosystems, the federal government scored a B+. Over the past five years it made substantial progress in establishing new marine protected areas (MPAs) and met the 10% target, announced minimum protection standards for MPAs, and made an historic budget investment as well as a commitment to ambitious protection targets for the next decade. Significant weaknesses in protection standards and the lack of progress on implementing minimum standards and Indigenous-led conservation lowered the grade.
The Governments of Nova Scotia, British Columbia, and Manitoba show varying degrees of promise, but still have a lot of work ahead. Nova Scotia made progress over the past decade, establishing more than 200 protected areas, including 91 just within the past year. The province faltered, however, by delisting Owls Head Provincial Park Reserve and being slow to fully implement its parks and protected areas plan. Once a leader on nature conservation, British Columbia has demonstrated limited progress over the past decade. The province reported 4% of its land base as OECMs, including existing Old Growth Forest Management Areas, thus reaching the 17% target on paper, but with many of its Other Effective Area-Based Conservation Measures (OECMs), falling short of Canadian and international standards. On a positive note, British Columbia’s Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples Act, which embeds the UN Declaration in provincial law, was passed, and in 2021 the province invested $83 million in park management. While Manitoba created a $102 million conservation trust in 2018, worrying signs have emerged recently that the province may divest of some of its park assets and/or decommission or transition parks to other models. For example, campsite fees tripled at St. Ambroise Provincial Park after a private company was recently awarded a 21-year lease.
The Governments of Saskatchewan, Alberta, Ontario, and Newfoundland and Labrador received the lowest grades, ranging from D to F. Although most achieved some increases in coverage, this was largely under previous governments and, in the case of Newfoundland and Labrador, through the completion of new federal protected areas. These four jurisdictions demonstrated little or no commitment to protecting more of their land base. In Ontario and Alberta, this lack of interest is coupled with serious harmful anti-conservation action, including rolling back nature protection policies and legislation and proposing the delisting of protected areas.
The Governments of New Brunswick and Yukon remain far behind the leaders but earned B- grades, as they have recently demonstrated significant effort and are showing positive trends. Once a laggard, in 2019 New Brunswick committed to double the extent of its protected areas system and is now working with Indigenous Nations and the public to identify new protected areas. Although the percentage of land protected in the Yukon has not increased since 2010, land use planning is back on track and a final decision has been made to permanently protect 55% of the Peel River Watershed, which will result in a significant leap forward in total area protected.
Key Takeaway Messages
- Where there is a (political) will, there is a way. Quebec’s progress demonstrates what strong political will combined with Indigenous leadership and public support can achieve.
- Indigenous leadership drives success. The most consistent trend that we observed across all jurisdictions is the critical role that Indigenous Peoples are playing in advancing conservation in Canada.
- Federal funding can be a game-changer. Federal funding for conservation partners, including Indigenous, provincial, and territorial governments, and NGOs, has leveraged additional investment from the philanthropic community, and moved the dial on conservation considerably in just a few years.
- Proactive and coordinated efforts help build momentum. Progress on terrestrial protected area establishment noticeably increased after 2017, aligned with the launch of the Pathway to Target 1 and associated processes.
- Conservation takes time. A major barrier to delivering on the 17% terrestrial target was the lack of time between 2018, when the federal government committed significant funding to deliver on the target, and the 2020 deadline. Delivering on the goal of 30% protection by 2030 will require starting the work now.
- Do not cut corners with Other Effective Area-Based Conservation Measures (OECMs). Although OECMs that meet standards may be valuable in some circumstances, protected areas, including Indigenous Protected Areas, should remain the core conservation tool for delivering on the next decade’s targets.
* In December 2020, the government of Quebec announced it had reached the 17% target. However, CPAWS has identified that only 16.7% has actually been protected and is encouraging the Quebec government to quickly address this shortfall.[/expand]
Contact Information for Media Inquiries
National Director, Communications and Development, CPAWS